Dr Zoe Schnepp
In the past, chemists were free to play with any element or molecule they wanted. Hazards such as bioaccumulation were unknown and, importantly, unexpected. Chemists busied themselves making devices, materials and medicines for the 20th century world with no idea of the problems these products might cause. In the process, chemistry (and chemicals) got a pretty dreadful reputation! Now we have to keep up with the demands and needs of a 21st century population, as well as find solutions to problems like the energy crisis.
So what are the next challenges for chemistry? Energy is certainly the biggest in my opinion. There are numerous options, with solar being perhaps the most attractive. The energy will also need to be stored, which is another big area of research. Another area that is becoming really interesting is where we source our feedstocks. Most school-age children will learn about fractional distillation of crude oil to produce molecules for the chemical industry (as well as the major fraction going to fuels). If oil becomes scarce then we will need alternative feedstocks and again nature may provide the answer. There is a lot of attention in the media about biofuels but similar chemistry is also being used to make useful molecules for the chemical industry. Plant matter (biomass) can be broken down in a biorefinery to make a whole range of molecules that can then be used to produce the drugs, plastics and other materials we use in our everyday lives.
A large challenge that I’ve mentioned briefly this week is resources. Elements that we use in devices and materials have to be sourced from the Earth. Many of these are mined from the Earth’s crust and some are present only in very small quantities. These scarce elements are expensive and several of them are becoming very important in modern technologies. Most importantly, some elements such as platinum or indium will become increasingly important in future technologies such as solar capture or fuel cells. Finding alternative ways to make these technologies work without rare elements is one possibility. In the meantime, the careful use of resources is essential.
There are so many other challenges I could discuss here. If you are interested in reading further, there is some great information (and a white paper) on the webpage of the Royal Society of Chemistry.[i] Scientists have always been good at solving problems, that’s the main reason that most of us do research! I’d like to think that the big challenges of the future represent some great opportunities.
Dr Zoe Schnepp
Enough energy from sunlight strikes our planet in one hour to provide all the energy needed for human activity in one year.
Given this astonishing fact, it is not surprising that governments all over the world now consider the harvesting of solar energy to be a priority. Several approaches exist, the most well known being the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. However, sunlight is not constant and so to ensure a reliable national power supply an energy storage system is required. This cannot just be a daily charge-recharge cycle. For energy security most countries require a storage buffer. At the moment this often takes the form of an oil stockpile. Batteries could provide part of the solution, but current technology does not have the energy capacity or stability for large-scale long-term storage.
Another possibility is using solar energy to generate a fuel, in much the same way as plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into energy-rich carbohydrates. Chemical fuels offer a much higher energy density (amount of energy per unit of mass) than batteries and can be stored for use either in stationary power plants or in vehicles. However, ‘copying nature’ is not straightforward. Photosynthesis is actually quite inefficient and so to make artificial photosynthesis a viable industry we can’t just settle with copying nature. We need to go one better.
Photosynthesis in plants involves two main steps, both of which are driven by sunlight. One step splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. This hydrogen is not released as a gas but is transported as a positively charged hydrogen ion to another enzyme. Here, the hydrogen ion is combined with carbon dioxide to generate sugars. For a chemist, copying this exquisite multistep process is extremely difficult! One alternative is just to focus on part of the photosynthesis reaction: the water splitting. If we can generate materials to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, we could generate hydrogen gas, which is an energy-rich and clean fuel. The materials use energy from sunlight to drive the water splitting and are called photocatalysts.
This system has a lot of potential but many challenges need to be overcome. Current photocatalysts have quite low efficiency and many only work using UV light. When water is split, the hydrogen and oxygen gases need to be kept separate to avoid creating an explosive mixture! Furthermore, many existing photocatalysts for water splitting use toxic elements such as cadmium or extremely rare and expensive elements such as platinum. Viable, large-scale hydrogen production from sunlight will require efficient photocatalysts based on cheap materials and simple preparation methods.
It’s at this stage that you can envisage some of the enormous challenges facing scientists. We’ve already mentioned cadmium being toxic – it’s banned from many applications under EU RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) legislation.[i] But in artificial photosynthesis, there are materials containing cadmium that work really well! Should we continue to use cadmium, arguing that it may end up being the only material that works? Or perhaps we can learn a lot about the science of artificial photosynthesis by studying cadmium? It’s a very difficult problem and certainly not one that is confined to cadmium, or indeed to artificial photosynthesis. There are countless cases of toxic or expensive elements that perform their jobs extremely well. This is why some toxic elements are exempted from EU chemical hazard regulation for certain devices. I would argue that we have a unique opportunity. In terms of implementing the technology, we are in the very early stages with artificial photosynthesis. There is a lot more work to be done to make this very promising chemistry work and it could genuinely revolutionize our world. If we consider sustainability now, then we won’t be faced with a big clean-up operation in 50 or 100 years.